"The people of Carolina believe that the Union is a union of States, and not of individuals;
that it was formed by the States, and that the citizens of the several States were bound to it through the acts of their several States;
that each State ratified the Constitution for itself, and that it was only by such ratification of a State that any obligation was imposed upon its citizens.
Thus believing, it is the opinion of the people of Carolina that it belongs to the State which has imposed the obligation to declare, in the last resort, the extent of this obligation, as far as her citizens are concerned; and this upon the plain principles which exist in all analogous cases of compact between sovereign bodies."
John C. Calhoun,
"On Nullification and the Force Bill."
15 February 1833